Laser tattoo removal..!!!

Lasers remove tattoos by breaking up the pigment colors with a high-intensity light beam. Black tattoo pigment absorbs all laser wavelengths, making it the easiest color to treat. Other colors can only be treated by selected lasers based upon the pigment color.


Laser tattoo removal is not pain-free. Most people experience minor levels of discomfort. But if you could handle the pain of getting a tattoo, you shouldn’t have a problem with this process. And while getting a tattoo can take hours, laser removal sessions only take a few minutes.

The possible side effects:

The tattoo removal site can become infected.
There is a slight chance that the treatment can leave a permanent scar. …
Some degree of skin discoloration is possible. …
Cosmetic tattoos, such as lip liner, eyeliner and eyebrows may get darker after initial laser treatments.

According to this at home tattoo removal method, you should apply table salt to a moist gauze sponge and sand down your skin where the tattoo is situated. You’ll have to continue doing this for at least 30 minutes. After about a week, you should be able to peel off the upper layer of skin.

Lasers are the safest, most effective tool to remove unwanted tattoos with. However, you may need to receive several sessions before the tattoo is removed completely.
You should first schedule a consultation with a trained professional who can evaluate your tattoo and advise you on the process. The number of treatments you will need will depend on the age, size, and color(s) of your tattoo. The color of your skin, as well as how deep the tattoo pigment goes, will also affect the removal technique.

In general, this is what you should expect during a laser tattoo removal session:

You’ll be given a pair of protective eye shields.
The technician will test your skin’s reaction to the laser to determine the most effective energy for treatment.
The technician uses the laser to pass pulses of intense light through the top layers of your skin that will be absorbed by the tattoo pigment only.
Smaller tattoos will require fewer pulses while larger ones will need more to remove them. In either case, to completely get rid of a tattoo, it will take several treatments. After each visit, your tattoo should become progressively lighter.

Laser tattoo removal is uncomfortable, but most patients don’t need anesthesia. Depending on the location of your tattoo, you may want to apply a topical anesthesia cream beforehand.

Immediately following the treatment, use an ice pack to soothe the treated area. And apply an antibiotic cream or ointment and bandage to protect it. You should also be sure it’s covered with sunblock when you’re outside.
Laser treatment is often safer than many other tattoo removal methods, such as excision, dermabrasion, or salabrasion because laser treatment selectively treats the pigment in the tattoo. And there are very few side effects. However, you should consider these factors in your decision:

Your tattoo removal site is at risk for infection. And there is a slight chance that you will have a permanent scar.
It’s unlikely that your tattoo will be completely removed. In many cases, certain colors may be more effectively removed than others. Blue and black tattoos, for example, respond well to laser treatment.
You may end up with hypopigmentation, which means the skin that is treated is paler than the skin surrounding it. You could also have hyperpigmentation, which leaves the affected skin darker than the rest of your skin.
Cosmetic tattoos like lip liner, eyeliner, and eyebrows may actually get darker after treatment. They do tend to fade over time.

To ensure you get proper treatment and care, find a reputable dermatologist or cosmetic surgery center. If possible, get a recommendation from your primary care physician for a dermatologist or skin surgery center that specializes in tattoo removal.

Since tattoo removal is a personal option in most cases, most insurance carriers won’t cover the process unless it is medically necessary. Physicians or surgery centers practicing tattoo removal may also require payment in full on the day of the procedure. If you are considering tattoo removal, be sure to discuss associated costs up front and obtain all charges in writing before you undergo any treatment.

Combating Common Skin Irritants:

If you have sensitive skin, you know that a new soap or cosmetic can trigger an outbreak of redness, itching, or stinging.

But are you aware that your home also might harbor other common skin irritants, including triple-antibiotic ointments, bandage adhesives, and jewelry that contains metals such as nickel? When your skin becomes inflamed after coming in contact with one of these substances — or many more — the condition is called contact dermatitis.

People with sensitive skin can get two types:

Irritant Contact Dermatitis
This form is more common, accounting for 80% of contact dermatitis cases. When an irritating substance touches your skin, you’ll often get a reaction that resembles a burn with red, chapped, and dry skin. This skin reaction tends to be more painful than itchy.

Irritant contact dermatitis is typically triggered by common substances that we are repeatedly exposed to, including:

•Strong soaps
•Drain cleaners
•Acetone in nail polish removers
People vary widely in their sensitivity to irritants. Some with sensitive skin can develop irritation from even mild soaps and detergents that they use frequently.

Typical irritant contact dermatitis symptoms include:

•Dry, cracked skin
•Mild skin swelling
•Blisters or painful ulcers on the skin
•Stiff, tight-feeling skin
•Allergic Contact Dermatitis
This less common form is a true allergic reaction. In allergic contact dermatitis, the immune system responds to a substance that touches the skin. You can become allergic to the substance after one exposure or many. In fact, people can be exposed to a substance for long periods, even years, before developing an allergy.

Common sources of allergic contact dermatitis include:

•Poison ivy
•Topical antibiotics
•Rubber or latex
•Metals in jewelry, such as nickel
Some people are also allergic to over-the-counter topical triple-antibiotic ointments. All told, thousands of substances can cause allergic dermatitis.

Lasers remove tattoos by breaking up the pigment colors with a high-intensity light beam. Black tattoo pigment absorbs all laser wavelengths, making it the easiest color to treat. Other colors can only be treated by selected lasers based upon the pigment color.

Black Doll Treatment ‼️

Black doll treatment is a painless, non-invasive facial that uses nano-carbon particles with a high intensity pulse of light to destroy dirt and blackheads that are clogged deep in skin follicles. A carbon enriched lotion is applied on the skin before it is treated with the laser.
The Black Doll Laser face treatment is often known as The Charcoal treatment or Laser carbon wrinkle reduction and creates a porcelain dolls complexion. It is one of the most advanced treatments for minor skin imperfections and promotes a smooth and glowing complexion.

It is great for minor skin problems. and gives you the best laser facial experience. It comes from a state of the art Q-switched Nd-Yag laser machine. This machine works wonders on your skin. by producing short, high-intensity pulses of light. Then destroy dirt that may be clogging up your pores.
A short course of 4 – 6 sessions can give noticeable brightening of complexion. and most people opt to continue with regular sessions to maintain the skin’s clarity. During the procedure, the laser clean the face. A thin layer of carbon lotion (as a photoenhancer) is applied.
The laser light is absorbed by the black particles of carbon. which blast off along with the superficial dead layer of skin as laser light moves across the skin. The laser selectively targets facial imperfections. Such as enlarged pores, pigmentation, scarring, and rough texture. Pore with oil and dead skin are cleared off.
The rejuvenating effect of 1064nm laser causes plumping up of the skin. The whole procedure takes 10-15 minutes. Most important is there is no downtime. You can go back to work or your daily life without any delay.

What can we expect for the black doll facial?
•Restores skin integrity and radiance
•Stimulates collagen growth
•Clears pores to help reduce blackheads and whiteheads
•Reduces acne, scars and post acne discoloration
•Improves skin texture
•Reduces fine lines and wrinkles
•Tightens dilated pores
•Removes dead skin cells from the superficial epidermal layer. Black Doll Laser Facial or Charcoal Black Doll Facial, is a non-invasive, painless procedure that uses focused laser beams to treat skin imperfections and make the skin look softer, healthier, smoother and firmer.

First developed in Asia, the treatment has become one of the most in-demand facial treatments. The procedure is suitable for all ages and safe on all skin types.

How does the treatment work?

During the treatment, your esthetician will evenly apply a layer of liquid carbon to your face and allow it to dry. The carbon will absorb the dead skin on the upper layer of your skin, and the dirt deep inside of your pores. Now, your esthetician will pass a non-ablative laser across the surface of your skin. The laser energy will break the carbon, taking dead skin cells, contaminants as well as oil with it. Also, the laser energy will deliver heat into the deep layer of the skin to help shrink pores as well as trigger collagen production.

Who is an ideal candidate for Carbon Laser Facials?

You are an ideal candidate for Carbon Laser Facials if you have:

•Fine lines and wrinkles
•Acne-prone skin
•Enlarged and congested pores
•Excessively oily skin
•Skin lesions & imperfections
•Facial scars.


What are the benefits of Carbon Laser Facial?

•Carbon Laser Peel is a completely painless treatment.
•The treatment will remove your dead skin cells.
•It will clear as well as tighten your pores.
•It will minimize the appearance of your fine lines and wrinkles.
•It will improve your skin tone and texture.
•It will also stimulate collagen growth.
•Your skin will look healthier, brighter and flawless after the treatment.

What is the aftercare like?

•Avoid direct sun exposure for a couple of days after the treatment.
•Avoid using cosmetics with harsh chemicals.
•Avoid retinoids or glycolic acid for at least 48 hours after treatment.
•Do not forget to wear sunscreen!
•Avoid excessive sweating for 3-4 days post treatment.
•Try to use clean face towels, bed sheets as well as pillow cases.
•Avoid touching your face.



Skin Rejuvenation by IPL laser therapy..!!

Skin rejuvenation includes various treatments that aim to restore your skin from any damage. Skin damage could be a result of sun exposure, an underlying health condition, or a normal sign of aging.

Certain treatment options are milder than an overall facelift and can also be used to treat specific areas. Some of the procedures of skin rejuvenation include:

Laser skin resurfacing
Chemical peels
Microdermabrasion and dermabrasion
IPL (intense pulsed light)
Dermal fillers
Botulinum toxin type A treatments (Botox)
Contraindications and Risks
There are some risks that can come with skin rejuvenation. These include:

Skin texture change
Allergic reactions
Light or dark spots
Delayed wound healing.

Skin rejuvenation involves cosmetic treatments that cause your face and skin to appear more youthful. It helps to make you look and feel younger by improving the natural glow of your skin. There are treatment options to aid in the rejuvenation of your skin including BroadBand Light treatments, collagen induction therapy treatments, and chemical peels.
IPL is safe and effective almost anywhere. The benefits are the same whether you are treating your hands, your chest, or your face. Many people use this treatment in multiple places for an all-over rejuvenated appearance.64C97B1F-6C0D-49E1-850E-74A183FB356A

IPL stands for intense pulsed light. It’s a type of light therapy used to treat wrinkles, spots, and unwanted hair.

You can use IPL to minimize or remove:

age spots
sun damage
varicose veins
broken blood vessels on your face
hair on your face, neck, back, chest, legs, underarms, or bikini line.

The difference between IPL and laser treatment

IPL is similar to a laser treatment. However, a laser focuses just one wavelength of light at your skin, while IPL releases light of many different wavelengths, like a photo flash.

The light from IPL is more scattered and less focused than a laser. IPL penetrates down to the second layer of your skin (dermis) without harming the top layer (epidermis), so it causes less damage to your skin.

Pigment cells in your skin absorb the light energy, which is converted into heat. The heat destroys the unwanted pigment to clear up freckles and other spots. Or, it destroys the hair follicle to prevent the hair from growing again.

You can use IPL anywhere on your body, but it may not work as well on uneven areas. It isn’t recommended for people who tend to get thick, raised keloid scars or who have darker skin tones. It’s also not as effective on light-colored hair as it is on darker hair.

How to prepare

Before your IPL procedure, your skin care specialist will examine your skin and let you know what to expect. Let them know if you have any skin conditions that might affect healing after your treatment, such as inflammatory acne or eczema.

Typically, however, the results of an IPL photofacial will be apparent for six months to a year. Dermatologists recommend maintenance treatments every six to 12 months to help prolong results.

There is very little risk of damaging your skin from IPL treatments, also known as photofacials. A photofacial is a non-invasive treatment that saturates the surface of your skin with light to target problem areas and reverse both signs of damage and aging. For patients to get the best IPL results, it is generally recommended that patients receive, on average, 4 – 6 treatments scheduled four weeks apart.

No, using your Philips Lumea more often than recommended will not speed up the hair removal process. Do not treat the same area multiple times in one session as this will not improve efficacy and can cause skin irritation.

Luckily, there are minimally invasive treatments that can tighten and improve the look of our skin and help to reclaim a more youthful appearance. IPL Skin Tightening is a procedure that uses intense pulsed light to deliver directed pulses of heat under the skin to trigger the body’s natural production of collagen.

IPL can be a fantastic therapy for erasing mild sun damage, freckles, and getting rid of – or greatly reducing – irregular pigmentation and light brown spots on the face, neck and chest. Brown spots, also referred to as “lentigines” in medical terminology, will fade over several treatments.D5EC0CCC-1055-4A09-92BC-A3BC841FA6EB

After IPL therapy, you may experience: Slight bruising, which will take 1 – 2 weeks to dissipate. Age spots and freckles looking darker for the first 3 – 7 days, which is normal. Skin becoming crusty or flaky, which may last 7 – 10 day.


History of Cryolipolysis..!!!

Fat freezing (or cryolipolysis) stems from observation of cold-induced fat necrosis in 1970 when Epstein et al. observed this in infants sucking on icy poles. Further observation revealed that this cold-induced fat necrosis (fat cell death) also occurs in adult patients. Until 2009, fat removal was usually accomplished surgically by abdominoplasty (tummy tuck) or by liposuction. Both methods provide good results, if performed by a highly skilled physician.


Due to these potential unwanted effects, there is a high demand for a non-invasive procedure that also allows for effective fat removal. To overcome these limitation, other non-invasive methods such as laser treatment, radio frequency and ultrasound are also conducted. These methods are used to selectively damage subcutaneous fatty tissue using various forms of energy delivered into the subcutaneous fat. The effectiveness of these types of treatments are debated and most often completely denied. The new strategy emerging since 2009 has been used to selectively damage fat tissue.
Fat freezing (or cryolipolysis) stems from observation of cold-induced fat necrosis in 1970 when Epstein et al. observed this in infants sucking on icy poles. Further observation revealed that this cold-induced fat necrosis (fat cell death) also occurs in adult patients. However, other tissues such as skin, nerves, vessels, and muscles were not affected by this cold.

In 2008, Dr Dieter Manstein and Dr Rox Anderson researched this phenomenon at The Wellman Center at Massachusetts General Hospital and published their data. After performing cold-induced fat necrosis in numerous of experiments on pigs, they introduced a new noninvasive method for fat reduction with freezing, termed cryolipolysis. After 3-4 months, their data showed selective and significant subcutaneous fat damage after exposing -5°C and -8°C for 10 minutes at sites covering 15% of skin area.

In 2009, a cryolipolysis device was invented and was called Coolsculpting and the procedure was approved by EU and followed by FDA in 2010. The TGA first approved the use of the Coolsculpting machine for cryolipolysis in Australia in 2015. Since then fat freezing in Melbourne and around the country has grown in popularity. There are numerous clinics in Melbourne that perform fat freezing as an alternative to other treatments or as an adjunct to existing treatments. It is common for plastic surgeons to use fat freezing after liposuction to smooth out the results or perhaps get rid of the little pockets that remain.

Dieter Manstein and Dr. R. Rox Anderson set out to create a machine which could be used to achieve fat reduction through the use of selective cyolysis. They renamed the fat freezing process ‘CoolSculpting’ which was both consumer and marketing friendly and began clinical trials for the device in 2008.

The science of cryolipolysis, the basis of CoolSculpting, was discovered after children who ate a lot of popsicles formed dimples in their cheeks. This was ultimately the reduction of fat. This happened because fat is more sensitive to temperature than skin, therefore directly affecting the fat and the skin formed to the new contour. Now, we utilize this discovered method as an effective way to remove fat from various regions of the body, such as the flanks, abdomen, arms, thighs, and buttocks, after diet and exercise have been insufficient at removing stubborn fat deposits.

CoolSculpting is not for shedding pounds. This is because muscle weighs more than fat, so it won’t make that huge of a difference to the number on the scale. CoolSculpting can remove up to 25 percent of fat within a treatment area, which is why results are not necessarily seen on the scale.

Because CoolSculpting is a noninvasive fat reduction treatment, the risks are very low in comparison to that of a surgical procedure. And since this treatment utilizes an automated machine, it removes the risk of human error. Rarely, patients have reported that the treated area remained numb for several weeks after the treatment. This causes no real harm to the body; merely an add sensation.

Risks and side effects: Some common side effects of CoolSculpting include:

1. Tugging sensation at the treatment site

During a CoolSculpting procedure, your doctor will place a roll of fat between two cooling panels on the part of your body that’s being treated. This can create a sensation of tugging or pulling that you’ll have to put up with for one to two hours, which is how long the procedure usually takes.

2. Pain, stinging, or aching at the treatment site

Researchers have found that a common side effect of CoolSculpting is pain, stinging, or aching at the treatment site. These sensations typically begin soon after treatment until about two weeks after treatment. The intense cold temperatures that the skin and tissue are exposed to during CoolSculpting may be the cause.

A study from 2015 reviewed the results of people who had collectively done 554 crypolipolysis procedures over one year. The review found that any post-treatment pain usually lasted 3-11 days and went away on its own.

3. Temporary redness, swelling, bruising, and skin sensitivity at the treatment site

Common CoolSculpting side effects include the following, all located where the treatment was done:

temporary redness
skin sensitivity
These are caused by exposure to cold temperatures. They usually go away on their own after a few weeks. These side effects occur because CoolSculpting affects the skin in a similar manner as frostbite, in this case targeting the fatty tissue just below the skin. However, CoolSculpting is safe and will not give you frostbite.

4. Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia at the treatment site – A very rare but serious side effect of CoolSculpting is paradoxical adipose hyperplasia. It occurs most in men. This means the fat cells in the treatment site grow larger rather than smaller. It’s not fully understood why this occurs. While it’s a cosmetic rather than physically dangerous side effect, paradoxical adipose hyperplasia doesn’t disappear on its own.

Who should avoid CoolSculpting?

CoolSculpting is a safe and effective treatment for reducing body fat in most people. However, there are some people who should not receive this treatment. People with the following conditions should not do CoolSculpting:

cold agglutinin disease
paroxysmal cold hemoglobulinuria
CoolSculpting could cause serious complications for people with these disorders.

Whether or not you have these preexisting conditions, it’s important to talk to your doctor before seeking out a plastic or cosmetic surgeon to perform the procedure.

It’s also important to note that CoolSculpting is not a treatment for obesity. Rather, it can help eliminate small amounts of excess fat that doesn’t easily go away with diet and exercise alone.

Growth cycle of hair follicle..!!

The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the inside of the mouth, the lips, the backs of the ears, the palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids.[1] Hair is a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium made of multi-layered flat cells whose rope-like filaments provide structure and strength to the hair shaft.

The protein called keratin makes up hair and stimulates hair growth.

Hair follows a specific growth cycle with three distinct and concurrent phases: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Each phase has specific characteristics that determine the length of the hair.

The body has different types of hair, including vellus hair and androgenic hair, each with its own type of cellular construction. This varied construction gives the hair unique characteristics, serving specific purposes, mainly warmth (redundant in modern humans) and physical protection.[2] Most humans develop the longest thickest hair on their scalps and (mostly observed in males) faces. This hair will usually grow to several feet before terminating, but many humans develop much longer hair.

1CB29425-753B-4DCA-BB54-B3830019D823    The first three phases — anagen, catagen, and telogen — cover the growth and maturation of hair and the activity of the hair follicles that produce individual hairs. During the final, or exogen, phase, “old” hair sheds, though usually, a new hair is getting ready to take its place.

Each phase has its own timeline, which can be affected by age, nutrition, and overall health. That means there are steps you can take along the way to help ensure that your hair follows a healthy growth cycle

1. Anagen: Growing phase

The stages of hair growth begin with the anagen phase. It’s the longest phase, lasting about 3 to 5 years for the hairs on your head, though for some people a single hair could continue growing for 7 or more years.

Fortunately, the anagen phase differs with different types of hair. For example, the anagen phase for eyebrow hairs and pubic hairs is much shorter than the phase for your scalp hairs.

During the anagen phase, your hair follicles are pushing out hairs that will continue to grow until they’re cut or until they reach the end of their lifespan and fall out. At any time, about 90 percentTrusted Source of the hairs on your head are in the anagen phase.

2. Catagen: Transition phase

The catagen phase starts when the anagen phase ends, and tends to last about 10 days or so. During this chapter, hair follicles shrink and hair growth slows. The hair also separates from the bottom of the hair follicle, yet remains in place during its final days of growing.

Only about 5 percent of the hairs on your head are in the catagen phase at any given time.

3. Telogen: Resting phase

The telogen phase typically lasts around 3 months. An estimated 10 to 15 percent of your scalp hairs are in this phase.

Hairs don’t grow during the telogen phase, but they don’t usually fall out either. The telogen phase is also when new hairs start to form in follicles that have just released hairs during the catagen phase.

Some health experts consider the telogen phase the shedding phase, as well, but many scientists have divided this stage into two parts: the telogen and exogen stages.

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4. Exogen: Shedding phase

The exogen phase is essentially an extension or a part of the telogen stage of hair growth. During the exogen phase, hair is shed from the scalp, often helped along by washing and brushing. Losing 50 to 100 hairs per day during the exogen phase is normal.

During the exogen phase, which can last about 2 to 5 months, new hairs are growing in the follicles as old hairs fall away.

The hair follicle is a tunnel-like segment of the epidermis that extends down into the dermis. The structure contains several layers that all have separate functions. At the base of the follicle is the papilla, which contains capillaries, or tiny blood vessels that nourish the cells. The living part of the hair is the very bottom part surrounding the papilla, called the bulb. The cells of the bulb divide every 23 to 72 hours, remarkably faster than any other cell in the body.

Two sheaths, an inner and outer sheath, surround the follicle. These structures protect and form the growing hair shaft. The inner sheath follows the hair shaft and ends below the opening of a sebaceous (oil) gland, and sometimes an apocrine (scent) gland. The outer sheath continues all the way up to the gland. A muscle called an erector pili muscle attaches below the gland to a fibrous layer around the outer sheath. When this muscle contracts, it causes the hair to stand up which also causes the sebaceous gland to secrete oil.

The sebaceous gland is vital because it produces sebum, which conditions the hair and skin. After puberty our body produces more sebum but as we age we begin to make less sebum. Women have far less sebum production than men do as they age.
The hair shaft is made of a hard protein called keratin and is made in three layers. This protein is actually dead, so the hair that you see is not a living structure. The inner layer is the medulla. The second layer is the cortex and the outer layer is the cuticle. The cortex makes up the majority of the hair shaft. The cuticle is a tightly formed structure made of shingle-like overlapping scales. It is both the cortex and the medulla that holds the hair’s pigment, giving it its color.

History of hair transplant – How it started..!!

The modern era of hair transplantation in the western world was ushered in the late 1950s, when New York dermatologist Norman Orentreich began to experiment with free donor grafts to balding areas in patients with male pattern baldness.
This technique involved taking large punch grafts in which they would harvest dozens of hairs from the back of the scalp and then transplant those hairs to the front of the scalp. Since this was the first technique available, there was nothing to compare it to. Unfortunately, the results of this technique gave an unnatural appearance of dozens of circular hair tufts separated by large spaces rather than the normally spaces individual hair follicles of the natural hairline.

The modern hair transplantation procedure was pioneered in the early 1990s by Dr. Bobby Limmer who was the first to perform hair transplantation using follicular unit transplantation (FUT). Modern hair transplantation is based on transplanting follicular units, which are natural groups of hair follicles which grow in groups of 1 to 4 hairs, with the average group of about 2 hairs. FUT involves doing a strip excision on the posterior scalp and then using a stereomicroscope to dissect the strip into individual follicular units. Simultaneously, recipient sites are carefully created by a hair transplant surgeon on the recipient area on the hairline or vertex scalp. The follicular units are then carefully transplanted into the recipient area using specialized forceps. There are no sutures required and the body’s clotting factors hold the hairs in place. Another modern technique which was developed after FUT is called FUE, or follicular unit extraction. In this technique, individual follicular units are harvested from the posterior scalp using either a manual or a motorized instrument. These follicular units are then transplanted into the recipient sites in the frontal hairline/vertex scalp in a similar fashion as in FUT procedures.
E2469218-4C32-4035-A444-1699C4B29EBF 4E4FF7AB-CCAD-4DC4-84F3-22026A989452Hair transplantation is a surgical technique that removes hair follicles from one part of the body, called the ‘donor site’, to a bald or balding part of the body known as the ‘recipient site’. The technique is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness. In this minimally invasive procedure, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding (like the back of the head) are transplanted to the bald scalp. Hair transplantation can also be used to restore eyelashes, eyebrows, beard hair, chest hair, pubic hair and to fill in scars caused by accidents or surgery such as face-lifts and previous hair transplants. Hair transplantation differs from skin grafting in that grafts contain almost all of the epidermis and dermis surrounding the hair follicle, and many tiny grafts are transplanted rather than a single strip of skin.

8D41988E-F1F1-4C68-93CC-675B3D3712B2Since hair naturally grows in groupings of 1 to 4 hairs, current techniques harvest and transplant hair “follicular units” in their natural groupings. Thus modern hair transplantation can achieve a natural appearance by mimicking original hair orientation. This hair transplant procedure is called follicular unit transplantation (FUT). Donor hair can be harvested in two different ways: strip harvesting, and follicular unit extraction (FUE).

Pre-operative assessment and planning
At an initial consultation, the surgeon analyzes the patient’s scalp, discusses their preferences and expectations, and advises them on the best approach (e.g. single vs. multiple sessions) and what results might reasonably be expected. Pre-operative folliscopy will help to know the actual existing density of hair, so that postoperative results of newly transplanted hair grafts can be accurately assessed. Some patients may benefit with preoperative topical minoxidil application and vitamins.

For several days prior to surgery the patient refrains from using any medicines which might result in intraoperative bleeding and resultant poor grafting. Alcohol and smoking can contribute to poor graft survival. Post operative antibiotics are commonly prescribed to prevent wound or graft infections.

Harvesting methods
Transplant operations are performed on an outpatient basis, with mild sedation (optional) and injected local anesthesia. The scalp is shampooed and then treated with an antibacterial agent prior to the donor scalp being harvested.

There are several different techniques for harvesting hair follicles, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the harvesting technique, proper extraction of the hair follicle is paramount to ensure the viability of the transplanted hair and avoid transection, the cutting of the hair shaft from the hair follicle. Hair follicles grow at a slight angle to the skin’s surface, so transplanted tissue must be removed at a corresponding angle.

There are two main ways in which donor grafts are extracted today: strip excision harvesting, and follicular unit extraction.

Strip harvesting
Strip harvesting (also known as follicular unit transplantation or FUT) is the most common technique for removing hair and follicles from a donor site. The surgeon harvests a strip of skin from the posterior scalp, in an area of good hair growth. A single-, double-, or triple-bladed scalpel is used to remove strips of hair-bearing tissue from the donor site. Each incision is planned so that intact hair follicles are removed. The excised strip is about 1–1.5 x 15–30 cm in size. While closing the resulting wound, assistants begin to dissect individual follicular unit grafts, which are small, naturally formed groupings of hair follicles, from the strip. Working with binocular Stereo-microscopes, they carefully remove excess fibrous and fatty tissue while trying to avoid damage to the follicular cells that will be used for grafting. The latest method of closure is called ‘Trichophytic closure’ which results in much finer scars at the donor area.

The surgeon then uses very small micro blades or fine needles to puncture the sites for receiving the grafts, placing them in a predetermined density and pattern, and angling the wounds in a consistent fashion to promote a realistic hair pattern. The technicians generally do the final part of the procedure, inserting the individual grafts in place.

Strip harvesting will leave a thin linear scar in the donor area, which is typically covered by a patient’s hair even at relatively short lengths. The recovery period is around 2 weeks and will require the stitches/staples to be removed by medical personnel or sub cuticular suturing can be done.

Follicular unit extraction (FUE)
With Follicular Unit Extraction or FUE harvesting, individual follicular units containing 1 to 4 hairs are removed under local anesthesia; this micro removal typically uses tiny punches of between 0.6mm and 1.0mm in diameter. The surgeon then uses very small micro blades or fine needles to puncture the sites for receiving the grafts, placing them in a predetermined density and pattern, and angling the wounds in a consistent fashion to promote a realistic hair pattern. The technicians generally do the final part of the procedure, inserting the individual grafts in place.

FUE takes place in a single long session or multiple small sessions. The FUE procedure is more time-consuming than strip surgery. An FUE surgery time varies according to the surgeons experience, speed in harvesting and patient characteristics. The procedure can take anywhere from a couple hours to extract 200 grafts for a scar correction to a surgery over two consecutive days for a megasession of 2,500 to 3,000 grafts.With the FUE Hair Transplant procedure there are restrictions on patient candidacy.Clients are selected for FUE based on a fox test,though there is some debate about the usefulness of this in screening clients for FUE.

FUE can give very natural results. The advantage over strip harvesting is that FUE harvesting negates the need for large areas of scalp tissue to be harvested, so there is no linear incision on the back of the head and it doesn’t leave a linear scar. Because individual follicles are removed, only small, punctate scars remain which are virtually not visible and any post-surgical pain and discomfort is minimized. As no suture removal is required, recovery from Micro Grafting FUE is less than 7 days.

Disadvantages include increased surgical times and higher cost to the patient. It is challenging for new surgeons because the procedure is physically demanding and the learning curve to acquire the skills necessary is lengthy and tough.[citation needed] Some surgeons note that FUE can lead to a lower ratio of successfully transplanted follicles as compared to strip harvesting.

Follicular unit transplant
Follicular unit transplantation (FUT) is the traditional hair transplant method which involves extracting a linear strip of hair bearing skin from the back or the side of the scalp. The strip is then dissected to separate individual grafts.

Robotic hair restoration
Robotic hair restoration devices utilize cameras and robotic arms to assist the surgeon with the FUE procedure. In 2009, NeoGraft became the first robotic surgical device FDA approved for hair restoration.[8] The ARTAS System was FDA approved in 2011 for use in harvesting follicular units from brown-haired and black-haired men.

Types of surgery
There are a number of applications for hair transplant surgery, including:

Androgenetic alopecia
Eyebrow transplant
Frontal hair line lowering or reconstruction (naturally high hairlines without an existing hair loss condition)
If donor hair numbers from the back of the head are insufficient, it is possible to perform body hair transplantation (BHT) on appropriate candidates who have available donor hair on the chest, back, shoulders, torso and/or legs. Body hair transplant surgery can only be performed by the FUE harvesting method and, so, requires the skills of an experienced FUE surgeon. However, there are several factors for a potential BHT candidate to consider prior to surgery. These include understanding the natural difference in textural characteristics between body hair and scalp hair, growth rates, and having realistic expectations about the results of BHT surgery.

Post-operative care
Advances in wound care allow for semi-permeable dressing, which allow seepage of blood and tissue fluid, to be applied and changed at least daily. The vulnerable recipient area must be shielded from the sun, and shampooing is started two days after the surgery. Some surgeons will have the patient shampoo the day after surgery. Shampooing is important to prevent scabs from forming around the hair shaft. Scabs adhere to the hair shaft and increase the risk of losing newly transplanted hair follicles during the first 7 to 10 days post-op.

During the first ten days, some of the transplanted hairs, inevitably traumatized by their relocation, may fall out. This is referred to as “shock loss”. After two to three months new hair will begin to grow from the moved follicles. The patient’s hair will grow normally, and continue to thicken through the next six to nine months. Any subsequent hair loss is likely to be only from untreated areas. Some patients elect to use medications to retard such loss, while others plan a subsequent transplant procedure to deal with this eventuality.

The cost of hair transplantation depends on the individual hair loss and consequently on the number of necessary grafts. The average price per graft ranges between $1.07 USD in Turkey up to $7.00 USD in Canada. Some clinics also offer all-inclusive packages.

PRP in Hair loss..!!

PRP (platelet-rich plasma) therapy for hair loss is a three-step medical treatment in which a person’s blood is drawn, processed, and then injected into the scalp.

Arogyam Hair Transplant Clinic is a pioneer in PRP for hair growth in the NE region. We use all the latest techniques in our procedure. The PRP vials imported from the US. High speed centrifuges are used for a double rotation technique.

Cost per procedure is Rs 3500. Cost is fixed and we do not offer packages. It is the same for all clients.

PRP procedure takes about 45 minutes for the whole procedure. We use local anesthesia with Prilocaine creams which are left on for about 40 minutes. We do not use dermarollers, the PRP solution is injected with insulin syringe.

PRP injections trigger natural hair growth and maintain it by increasing blood supply to the hair follicle and increasing the thickness of the hair shaft. Sometimes this approach is combined with other hair loss procedures or medications. PRP therapy has been in use since the 1980s. It’s also been used for problems such as healing injured tendons, ligaments, and muscles.
PRP therapy process: PRP therapy is a three-step process. Most PRP therapy requires three treatments 4–6 weeks apart. Maintenance treatments are required every 4–6 months.

• Step 1- Your blood is drawn — typically from your arm — and put into a centrifuge (a machine that spins rapidly to separate fluids of different densities).

• Step 2-  After  10 minutes in the centrifuge in two stages, your blood will have separated into in three layers:

platelet-poor plasma
platelet-rich plasma
red blood cells
• Step 3- The platelet-rich plasma is drawn up into a syringe and then injected into areas of the scalp that need increased hair growth.

Results of PRP can be variable. In some the results are almost miraculous and very fast, in some results are not so clear. But most people are in between and will benefit to a great extent with PRP.

According to a recent study in Trusted Source, “Although PRP has sufficient theoretical scientific basis to support its use in hair restoration, hair restoration using PRP is still at its infancy.

PRP for hair loss side effects:- Because PRP therapy involves injecting your own blood into your scalp, you aren’t at risk for getting a communicable disease. Still, any therapy that involves injections always carries a risk of side effects such as:

•injury to blood vessels or nerves
•calcification at the injection points
•scar tissue
There’s also the chance that you could have a negative reaction to the anesthetic used in the therapy. If you decide to pursue PRP therapy for hair loss, let your doctor know in advance about your tolerance to anesthetics.
Risks of PRP for hair loss:- 

Be sure to report all medications you’re on before the procedure including supplements and herbs.

You should also tell your doctor if you:

• are on blood thinners
• are a heavy smoker
• have a history of alcohol or drug misuse

Purposes of PRP injections:-

Researchers are trying out PRP injections across a number of applications. Examples of these include:

1. Hair loss:- Doctors have injected PRP into the scalp to promote hair growth and prevent hair loss. According to research Trusted Source from 2014, PRP injections are effective in treating androgenic alopecia, also known as male pattern baldness.
2. Tendon injuries:- Tendons are tough, thick bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone. They are usually slow to heal after injury. Doctors have used PRP injections to treat chronic tendon problems, such as tennis elbow, Achilles tendonitis at the ankle, and jumper’s knee, which causes pain in the patellar tendon in the knee.
3. Acute injuries:- Doctors have used PRP injections to treat acute sports injuries, such as pulled hamstring muscles or knee sprains.
4. Postsurgical repair:- Sometimes doctors use PRP injections after surgery to repair a torn tendon (such as a rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder) or ligaments (such as the anterior cruciate ligament).
4. Osteoarthritis:- PRP injections in the knee may help people with osteoarthritis. A 2015 studyTrusted Source found that PRP injections were more effective than hyaluronic acid injections (a traditional therapy) for treating osteoarthritis. However, the trial was a small group of 160 people, so larger trials are needed for this to be conclusive.

Preparation for Prp injections:  There are few steps to preparing for PRP injections. These steps depend on how you receive PRP. PRP can be injected in different ways.
Other times, a local anesthetic is mixed with the PRP to reduce any discomfort. Sometimes, your doctor will inject or apply PRP during surgery. In this instance, preparation for PRP injections would involve following your surgeon’s recommendations before surgery.

What is the recovery time for PRP injections?

– When PRP is injected after an injury, your doctor may recommend that you rest the affected area. However, these recommendations are more related to the injury and less to the PRP injections. Most people can continue their daily activities following PRP injections. Because PRP injections are intended to promote healing or growth, you may not notice an immediate difference after receiving the injections. However, in several weeks or months, the area may begin healing faster or growing more hair than you would have expected if you hadn’t received PRP injections.

PRP hair restoration produces noticeable results after just four to six weeks. However, it may be approximately 3.5 months before you see the results you were looking for. Due to the hair growth cycle, ideal results can take up to three sessions spaced one month apart to become apparent.






Hair loss after covid…!!!

Fever is a common symptom of COVID-19. A few months after having a high fever or recovering from an illness, many people see noticeable hair loss.
The medical name for this type of hair shedding is telogen effluvium. It happens when more hairs than normal enter the shedding (telogen) phase of the hair growth lifecycle at the same time. A fever or illness can force more hairs into the shedding phase.
Most people see noticeable hair shedding two to three months after having a fever or illness. Handfuls of hair can come out when you shower or brush your hair. This hair shedding can last for six to nine months before it stops. Most people then see their hair start to look normal again and stop shedding.
Even if you never developed a fever or COVID-19, you may still see hair shedding. Emotional stress can also force more hairs than normal into the shedding phase.
Excessive hair fall has become a severe health concern among people infected with the COVID-19. Along with other long term post-infection COVID symptoms, a lot of people these days are approaching dermatologists to seek treatment for hair thinning. Be it, men or women, both seem equally affected by this health issue.
Many people are experiencing hair fall after recovering from Covid-19. Hair loss can be a result of many things, including a deficiency of nutrients during the period of infection can also result in hair fall. “A healthy diet is the most important aspect of recovery. Consuming a diet lacking the right nutrients can lead to hair loss. For healthy hair, one should consume enough water along with a diet rich in protein, biotin, iron, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, vitamin C, E, and zinc.

Eight foods that can be added to your diet to make your hair healthy, shiny, and lustrous.
1. Eggs: Egg yolks are rich in healthy fats and protein. They are full of biotin, a B vitamin that promotes strong hair growth and also good for scalp health. On the other hand, biotin deficiency can cause brittle hair. Other good sources of protein are dairy products, tofu, dal, chicken, and fish.
2. Spinach: Green leafy vegetables go a long way in not only maintaining the health of your hair but also provide it with essential vitamins and nutrients that help treat damaged hair back to health. Spinach is a rich source of vitamin A, K, E, C, B vitamins along with manganese, zinc, iron, and omega 3 fatty acids that keep your scalp healthy. These vitamins improve collagen and keratin levels and speed up the hair growth process.
3. Avocado: Avocados are packed with monosaturated fats, fatty acids, and vitamin E which nourish the hair and make them shiny and strong. This healthy fruit is high in protein and rich in B vitamins, too.
4. Oilseeds – Foods rich in Omega-3 fatty acids are a must for strong hair; these include chia seeds, flaxseeds, pumpkin seeds, and sunflower seeds. They are also an excellent source of minerals like phosphorus, calcium, and protein, all of which encourage hair growth and strong hair. Pumpkin seeds naturally contain biotin which encourages strong and faster hair growth. These seeds can be easily added to your everyday diet. Just sprinkle a spoonful into your morning glass of milk or smoothie.
5. Legumes: Legumes are rich in protein which is needed for improving hair growth and make it shiny. They also contain zinc and biotin. Beans contain complex carbohydrates, which help convert protein into cells that form hair. Vitamin A, B6, zinc, and manganese present in black channa plays an important role in building up the hair protein.
6. Almonds and cashew nuts – These nuts are extremely rich in fatty acids, which is the key to maintaining smooth, supple, and strong hair. Cashewnuts are also loaded with copper which enhances hair growth. Almonds are full of Vitamin E which gives silky and strong hair.
7. Lemon: They have a very high concentration of vitamin C which helps to build collagen. Collagen helps your hair to grow as well as helps your body to absorb iron which strengthens the hair scalp. Other sources of vitamin C which prevent hair fall are bell peppers, strawberries, amla, papaya, and kiwi.
8. Whole grains – Whole grains like oats, quinoa whole wheat, and barley, and B vitamin that helps prevent hair breakage and increases, hair strength and growth. They also contain a high amount of zinc that helps to hair loss at bay.

Pigmentation Therapy

Pigmentation therapy is used to reduce darkened patches or spots on the skin. Pigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in colour than the normal surroundings skin. Hyperpigmentation can affect the skin colour of people of any race. Age or liver spots are a common form of hyperpigmentation. They occur due to sun-damage, and are referred to by doctors as solar lentigines. These small, darkened patches are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun.

Different types of skin pigment conditions
•Freckles – Freckles are the most common type of pigmentation. …
• Solar Lentigines – Solar Lentigines are the pigmentation types also known as liver spots, sun spots, brown spots or age spots.
• Melasma
• Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)  –          Pigmentation is a common skin condition, and there are a number of different treatment options available. To learn more about your options, including products you can try at home, what to expect from procedures like microdermabrasion, and more:

1. Lightening Creams— Lightening creams are over-the-counter (OTC) treatments that work with select ingredients to help decrease pigmentation. Many of these creams are available in stronger prescription forms. They’re usually applied once or twice a day to help lighten the skin over time. Topical treatments for lightening also come in gel form. Common ingredients found in OTC lightening products include:

licorice extract
vitamin B-3 (niacinamide)

2. Face acids—  Face acids, or skin acids, work by exfoliating, or shedding, the top layer of your skin. Whenever you exfoliate your skin, new skin cells emerge to take the place of the old ones. The process helps even out your skin tone and makes it smoother overall. Many face acids are available OTC at beauty stores and drugstores. Popular options include:
alpha hydroxy acids, such as glycolic, lactic, citric, malic, or tartaric acid
azelaic acid
kojic acid
salicylic acid
vitamin C (in the form of l-ascorbic acid)

3. Retinoids— Derived from vitamin A, retinoids are among some of the oldest OTC skincare ingredients used. Their small molecular structure allows them to penetrate deep into the skin and treat the layers below your epidermis. Retinoids can come in either a prescription or OTC formula. However, OTC versions tend to be weaker.

4. Chemical Peel— A chemical peel uses acids at stronger concentrations to treat the desired area of skin. They reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation by removing the epidermis. Deeper versions may also penetrate the middle layer of your skin (dermis) to produce more dramatic results. Although many chemical peels are available OTC, you might consider getting a professional-grade peel at your dermatologist’s office. These are more powerful, and they yield quicker results.

Due to their strength, in-office peels may also increase your risk for side effects. Talk to your dermatologist about your individual risks. Possible risks with both at-home and in-office chemical peels include redness, irritation, and blistering. When used improperly, blisters or scars may also develop. If you’re out in the sun on a regular basis, chemical peels may not be the best treatment option for you. Chemical peels cause your skin to be more sensitive to the sun’s rays.

5. Laser peel (skin resurfacing)— A laser peel (resurfacing) treatment uses targeted beams of light to reduce hyperpigmentation.

There are two types of lasers: ablative and non-ablative. Ablative lasers are the most intense, and they involve removing layers of your skin. Non-ablative procedures, on the other hand, target the dermis to promote collagen growth and tightening effects.

6. Intense Pulse Light Therapy (IPL)— IPL therapy is a type of non-ablative (fractional) laser treatment. Also known as a photofacial, IPL therapy stimulates collagen growth within the dermis. It usually requires multiple sessions. IPL is used for overall pigmentation issues, but flat spots especially respond to this treatment. It may also help reduce the appearance of wrinkles, spider veins, and enlarged pores.

7. Microdermabrasio— Microdermabrasion is an in-office procedure used to treat hyperpigmentation that affects the epidermis only (superficial scarring).

During the procedure, your dermatologist will use a drill-like handheld tool with a wire brush or other abrasive attachment. The tool is then swiped across your skin to rapidly — but gently — to remove the epidermis. You may need multiple sessions to achieve your ideal result.

8. Dermabrasion— Dermabrasion also involves the removal of your epidermis, but its effects continue down to part of your dermis. While dermabrasion is sometimes used to smooth out wrinkles, the procedure has been historically used to address texture concerns. These include:

acne scars
age spots
chickenpox scars
injury scars
sun damage

General Guidelines: In order to identify any underlying causes of hyperpigmentation or identify any factors that may hinder treatment, it is essential to obtain a detailed medication history for all patients.